Summary: Anatomy of the genitourinary tract and histology of genitourinary tumours
- The most common kidney cancers are clear cell, papillary and chromophobe RCC
- Urothelium is present in the renal pelvis, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra, but >90% of urothelial neoplasms occur in the urinary bladder
- The staging system of urothelial neoplasms is unusual as two types of non-invasive lesions exist: pTa and pTis
- There is a high interobserver variability in staging pTa and pT1 tumours
- pTa and pT1 tumours represent two different entities at the genetic level and have a completely different clinical course
- PC is very common and will be found upon examination in >75% of men at the age of 75 years
- PC is graded according to Gleason grading, the strongest predictor of tumour aggressiveness. Since 2014, the ISUP grading system is also used
- More than 95% of all testicular neoplasias are GCTs
- GCTs mostly occur at young age
- GCTs include seminoma, embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumour, choriocarcinoma and teratoma
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