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Chapter 1 - Risk Factors

Further Reading

Coggen D, Rose G, Barker DJP. Chapter 1: What is epidemiology? Epidemiology for the uninitiated, 4th edition.
http://www.bmj.com/about-bmj/resources-readers/publications/epidemiology-uninitiated/ (23 January 2018, date last accessed)

Dos Santos Silva I. Cancer epidemiology: principles and methods.

Rothman K. Epidemiology—An Introduction, 2nd edition. London: Oxford University Press, 2012 (23 January 2018, date last accessed).

Vandenbroucke JP, von Elm E, Altman DG, et al; STROBE Initiative. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE): explanation and elaboration. PLoS Med 2007; 4:e297.


Benson VS, Pirie K, Schüz J, et al. Mobile phone use and risk of brain neoplasms and other cancers: prospective study. Int J Epidemiol 2013; 42:792–802.

Berrington de Gonzalez A, Curtis RE, Kry SF, et al. Proportion of second cancers attributable to radiotherapy treatment in adults: a cohort study in the US SEER cancer registries. Lancet Oncol 2011; 12:353–360.

Bottorff JL, Robinson CA, Sarbit G, et al. A motivational, gender-sensitive smoking cessation resource for family members of patients with lung cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum 2015; 42:363–370.

Bruner DW, Moore D, Parlanti A, et al. Relative risk of prostate cancer for men with affected relatives: systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Cancer 2003; 107:797–803.

Doll R, Peto R, Boreham J, Sutherland I. Mortality in relation to smoking: 50 years’ observations on male British doctors. BMJ 2004; 328:1519.

Hardell L, Carlberg M, Söderqvist F, Mild KH. Case-control study of the association between malignant brain tumours diagnosed between 2007 and 2009 and mobile and cordless phone use. Int J Oncol 2013; 43:1833–1845.

Hill AB. The environment and disease: association or causation? Proc R Soc Med 1965; 58:295–300.

Howell LA, Brockman TA, Sinicrope PS, et al. Receptivity and preferences in cancer risk reduction lifestyle programs: a survey of colorectal cancer family members. J Behav Health 2013; 2:279–290.

International Agency for Research on Cancer, European Commission. European Code Against Cancer. Available from: http://cancer-code-europe.iarc.fr (24 January 2018, date last accessed).

INTERPHONE Study Group. Brain tumour risk in relation to mobile telephone use: results of the INTERPHONE international case-control study. Int J Epidemiol 2010; 39:675–694.

Jones ME, Schoemaker MJ, Wright L, et al. Menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer: what is the true size of the increased risk? Br J Cancer 2016; 115:607–615.

Kachuri L, Villeneuve PJ, Parent MÉ, et al, Canadian Cancer Registries Epidemiology Research Group. Workplace exposure to diesel and gasoline engine exhausts and the risk of colorectal cancer in Canadian men. Environ Health 2016; 15:4.

Kamran SC, Berrington de Gonzalez A, Ng A, et al. Therapeutic radiation and the potential risk of second malignancies. Cancer 2016; 122:1809–1821.

Khuri FR, Kim ES, Lee JJ, et al. The impact of smoking status, disease stage, and index tumor site on second primary tumor incidence and tumor recurrence in the head and neck retinoid chemoprevention trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2001; 10:823–829.

Lagorio S, Röösli M. Mobile phone use and risk of intracranial tumors: a consistency analysis. Bioelectromagnetics 2014; 35:79–90.

Morgan LL, Miller AB, Sasco A, Davis DL. Mobile phone radiation causes brain tumors and should be classified as a probable human carcinogen (2A) (Review). Int J Oncol 2015; 46:1865–1871.

Morton LM, Onel K, Curtis RE, et al. The rising incidence of second cancers: patterns of occurrence and identification of risk factors for children and adults. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book 2014; e57–e67.

Oeffinger KC, Baxi SS, Novetsky Friedman D, Moskowitz CS. Solid tumor second primary neoplasms: who is at risk, what can we do? Semin Oncol 2013; 40:676–689.

Parkin DM. 1. The fraction of cancer attributable to lifestyle and environmental factors in the UK in 2010. Br J Cancer 2011; 105 Suppl 2:S2–S5.

Radecki Breitkopf C, Asiedu GB, Egginton J, et al. An investigation of the colorectal cancer experience and receptivity to family-based cancer prevention programs. Support Care Cancer 2014; 22:2517–2525.

Riboli E. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): plans and progress. J Nutr 2001; 131:170S–175S.

The Gambia Hepatitis Study Group. The Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study. Cancer Res 1987; 47:5782–5787.

Vandenbroucke JP, von Elm E, Altman DG, et al. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE): explanation and elaboration. PLOS Med 2007; 4:e297.

Viviani S, Carrieri P, Bah E, et al. 20 years into the Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study: assessment of initial hypotheses and prospects for evaluation of protective effectiveness against liver cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers 2008; 17:3216–3223.

Whiteman DC, Webb PM, Green AC, et al. Cancers in Australia in 2010 attributable to modifiable factors: summary and conclusions. Aust N Z J Public Health 2015; 39:477–484.

Yang YX, Hennessy S, Lewis JD. Insulin therapy and colorectal cancer risk among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Gastroenterology 2004; 127:1044–1050.

Zielinski JM, Garner MJ, Band PR, et al. Health outcomes of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure among medical workers: a cohort study of the Canadian national dose registry of radiation workers. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2009; 22:149–156.

Chapter 1 - Conclusion About: Interpreting Oncological Study Publications

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