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2L: Second-line

5-FU: 5-Fluorouracil

AACR: American Association of Cancer Research

Ab: Antibody

ABC: Anti-PD-1 Brain Collaboration

AC: Atypical carcinoid

ACT: Adoptive T cell therapy

ADC: Antibody–drug conjugate

ADCC: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity

ADCP: Antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis

AE: Adverse event

AFP: Alpha-foetoprotein

AIDS: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

AIRE: Autoimmune regulator

ALCL: Anaplastic large cell lymphoma

ALK: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase

ANCA: Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody

APC: Antigen-presenting cell

APECED: Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy

ASCO: American Society of Clinical Oncology

ASCT: Autologous stem cell transplantation

Atezo: Atezolizumab

B-ALL: B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

BCG: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin

BCLC: Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer

bid: Twice daily

BITE: Bispecific T cell engager

BM: Brain metastasis

B-NHL: B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma

BSC: Best supportive care

BV: Brentuximab vedotin

CAF: Cancer-associated fibroblast

CAR: Chimeric antigen receptor

ccRCC: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma

CEA: Carcinoembryonic antigen

CFU: Colony forming unit

cHL: Classical Hodgkin lymphoma

ChT: Chemotherapy

CI: Confidence interval

CIN: Chromosomal instability

CLL: Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

CNS: Central nervous system

CPD: Confirmed progressive disease

CPK: Creatine phosphokinase

CPS: Combined positivity score

CR: Complete response

CRC: Colorectal cancer

CRS: Cytokine-release syndrome

CRT: Chemoradiotherapy

CTLA-4: Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4

CV: Coxsackievirus

DCR: Disease control rate

DFS: Disease-free survival

DLBCL: Diffuse large B cell lymphoma

DLL3: Delta-like 3

DLT: Dose-limiting toxicity

dMMR: Mismatch repair deficiency

Doc: Docetaxel

DOR: Duration of response

DTIC: Dacarbazine

Durva: Durvalumab

EBV: Epstein-Barr virus

EC: Endometrial cancer

ECM: Extracellular matrix

ECOG: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group

EFS: Event-free survival

EGFR: Epidermal growth factor receptor

EMA: European Medicines Agency

EMT: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition

EOC: Epithelial ovarian cancer

EORTC: European Organization for Research and Treatment
of Cancer

ESMO: European Society for Medical Oncology

ETOP: European Thoracic Oncology Platform

EU: European Union

FcγR: γ receptor

FDA: Food and Drug Administration

FGFR: Fibroblast growth factor receptor

FL: Follicular lymphoma

FU: Follow-up

GC: Gastric cancer

GCB: Germinal centre B cell-like

GEJ: Gastroesophageal junction

GGT: Gamma-glutamyl transferase

GI: Gastrointestinal

GITR: Glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor

GM-CSF: Granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor

GMP: Good Manufacturing Practice

GOG: Gynecologic Oncology Group

gp100: Glycoprotein 100

GPC3: Glypican 3

Gr: Grade

GS: Genomically stable

GU: Genitourinary

HAART: Highly active antiretroviral therapy

HBV: Hepatitis B virus

HCC: Hepatocellular carcinoma

HDACi: Histone deacetylase inhibitor

HIF-1: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1

HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus

HL: Hodgkin lymphoma

HLA: Human leukocyte antigen

HNSCC: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

HPV: Human papillomavirus

HR: Hazard ratio

HRCT: High-resolution computed tomography

HRT: Hormone replacement treatment

i.m.: Intramuscular

i.v.: Intravenous

IC: Immune cell

ICB: Immune checkpoint blockade

ICI: Immune checkpoint inhibitor

ICOS: Inducible T cell co-stimulator

Id: Idiotype

IDO: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase

IFG-1R: Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor

IFN: Interferon

IFNGR: IFN-γ receptor

IFN-α: Interferon-alpha

IFN-γ: Interferon-gamma

Ig: Immunoglobulin

IHC: Immunohistochemistry

IL: Interleukin

IL13Rα2: Interleukin-13 receptor α2

IL-7R: Interleukin-7 receptor

IO: Immuno-oncology

Ipi: Ipilimumab

IPRES: Innate anti-PD-1 resistance

irAE: Immune-related adverse event

iRECIST: Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumours in immunotherapy trials

IRF: Independent review facility

IRF1: Interferon regulatory factor 1

irRC: Immune-related response criteria

ITT: Intention to treat

JAK: Janus kinase

KIR: Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor

LA: Locally advanced

LAG-3: Lymphocyte-activation gene 3

LCNEC: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma

LDH: Lactate dehydrogenase

LN: Lymph node

mAb: Monoclonal antibody

MAGE-A: Melanoma-associated antigen genes-A

MAGE-A3: Melanoma-associated antigen-A3

MALT: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue

MCC: Merkel cell carcinoma

MCPyV: Merkel cell polyomavirus

MDSC: Myeloid-derived suppressor cell

MHC: Major histocompatibility complex

M1c: Visceral metastatic disease

MMR: Mismatch repair

mOS: Median overall survival

MPM: Malignant pleural mesothelioma

MPR: Major pathological response

MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging

mRNA: Messenger RNA

MSI: Microsatellite instability

MSI-H: Microsatellite instability-high

MSKCC: Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

MSLN: Mesothelin

MTD: Maximum tolerated dose

mTOR: Mammalian target of rapamycin

MUC: Mucin

N/A: Not applicable

NASH: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

NCCN: National Cancer Center Network

NCI: National Cancer Institute

NE: Not evaluated

NED: No evidence of disease

NGS: Next-generation sequencing

Nivo: Nivolumab

NK: Natural killer

NMIBC: Non-muscle invasive bladder urothelial carcinoma

NO: Nitric oxide

NR: Not reached

NSCLC: Non-small cell lung cancer

NSQ: Non-squamous

NY-ESO-1: New York-oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1

Obs: Observation

OPC: Oropharyngeal cancer

ORR: Objective response rate

OS: Overall survival

OSCC: Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma

PAP: Prostatic acid phosphatase

PARP: Poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase

PBMC: Peripheral blood mononuclear cell

PCD: Programmed cell death

PCNSL: Primary central nervous system lymphoma

PD-1: Programmed cell death protein 1

PDGFR: Platelet-derived growth factor receptor

PD-L1: Programmed death-ligand 1

PE: Platinum/etoposide

Pembro: Pembrolizumab

PET: Positron emission tomography

PFS: Progression-free survival

PMBCL: Primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma

PMED: Particle-mediated epidermal delivery

POLD: Polymerase D

POLE: Polymerase E

PR: Partial response

PRO: Patient-reported outcome

PS: Performance status

PTEN: Phosphatase and tensin homologue

PTL: Primary testicular lymphoma

PTLD: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder

pts: Patients

qd: Once daily

QOL: Quality of life

qXw: Every X weeks

R/R: Relapsed/refractory

R0: No tumour at the margin

RCC: Renal cell carcinoma

RECIST: Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumours

REP: Rapid expansion protocol

RFA: Radiofrequency ablation

RFS: Recurrence-free survival

RNAseq: RNA sequencing

RNS: Reactive nitrogen species

ROC: Receiver operating characteristic

Rova-T: Rovalpituzumab tesirine

RP2D: Recommended phase II dose

RR: Response rate

RS: Reed-Sternberg

RT: Radiotherapy

RTOG: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

RT-PCR: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

s.c.: Subcutaneous

SBRT: Stereotactic body radiotherapy

SCCC: Squamous cell carcinoma of cervix

scFv: Single chain fragment of variable region

SCLC: Small cell lung cancer

SD: Stable disease

SLP: Synthetic long peptide

SoC: Standard-of-care

SOM: Sum of measurement

SQ: Squamous

STAT: Signal transducer and activator of transcription

TAA: Tumour-associated antigen

TACE: Transcatheter arterial chemo-embolisation

TAM: Tumour-associated macrophage

TAP: Transporter associated with antigen processing

TC: Tumour cell

TCGA: The Cancer Genome Atlas

TCHRBCL: T cell-rich, histiocyte-rich large B cell lymphoma

TCR: T cell receptor

Teff: Effector T cell

TERT: Telomerase reverse transcriptase

TGF: Transforming growth factor

TIGIT: T cell immunoreceptor with immunoglobulin and inhibitory motif

TIL: Tumour infiltrating lymphocyte

TIM-3: T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3

TKI: Tyrosine kinase inhibitor

TLR: Toll-like receptor

TLS: Tumour lysis syndrome

TMA: Tissue micro-array

TMB: Tumour mutation burden

TME: Tumour microenvironment

TNF: Tumour necrosis factor

TNFSFR: TNF superfamily receptor

T-NHL: T cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma

TNM: Tumour Node Metastasis

TP: Timepoint

TPS: Tumour proportion score

trAE: Treatment-related adverse event

Treg: T regulatory cell

TTP: Time to progression

T-VEC: Talimogene laherparepvec

UC: Urothelial carcinoma

UPD: Unconfirmed progressive disease

US: United States

UV: Ultraviolet

VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor

VEGFR: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor

VISTA: V-domain immunoglobulin suppressor of T cell activation

WCLC: World Conference on Lung Cancer

WES: Whole-exome sequencing

WHO: World Health Organization

Further Reading Editors and Contributors

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