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  • Many thousands of DNA-damaging events can occur in cells every day [1].
  • DNA damage can be due to a number of endogenous factors (spontaneous or enzymatic reactions, chemical modifications, replication errors, replication stress) or exogenous factors (UV radiation, ionizing radiation, genotoxic chemicals) [1-4].


  1. O'Connor MJ. Targeting the DNA Damage Response in Cancer. Mol Cell 2015; 60: 547-560.
  2. Lord CJ, Ashworth A. PARP inhibitors: Synthetic lethality in the clinic. Science 2017; 355: 1152-1158.
  3. Hanahan D, Weinberg RA. Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation. Cell 2011; 144: 646-674.
  4. Jackson SP, Bartek J. The DNA-damage response in human biology and disease. Nature 2009; 461: 1071-1078.

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