- The diagnostic material for AML, ALL, CML and MDS is peripheral blood, bone marrow aspirate and histology
- Cytomorphology and cytochemistry are cheap and fast and can accurately diagnose leukaemias and MDS
- Flow cytometry is used to differentiate AML from ALL and defines ALL subgroups
- A LAIP can be used for MRD monitoring
- Cytogenetic evaluation by karyotyping and FISH is a diagnostic tool that also yields prognostic information
- The WHO 2016 classification of haematological neoplasms recognises the importance of genetic aberrations and somatic mutations
- The Philadelphia chromosome t(9;22) generates the fusion protein BCR-ABL1, which drives CML
- BCR-ABL1+ or Ph+ ALL is a specific ALL subgroup that needs specific targeted treatment
- Somatic mutations define clonal haematopoiesis. In a patient with cytopaenia, this results in the diagnosis of CCUS
- Specific mutations (spliceosome) or mutational patterns (co-mutations with ASXL1, TET2, DNMT3A) might become disease-defining or diagnostic in the future
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