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Chapter 1 - Histopathology of Gynaecological Cancers


  • Ovarian tumours:
    • Epithelial ovarian tumours
    • Sex cord ovarian tumours
    • Germ cell ovarian carcinomas
  • Ovarian cancer is not a homogeneous disease, but rather a group of diseases—each with different morphology and biological behaviour. Reproducible histopathological diagnosis of tumour cell type is a conditio sine qua non for successful treatment. FIGO staging has recently been revised and reflects the tumour dissemination and subsequent prognosis
  • Uterine corpus tumours:
    • Sarcomas
    • Type 1: Endometrioid carcinomas
    • Type 2: Serous carcinomas
  • In uterine corpus cancers, three major types can be identified according to their intrinsic biology and subsequent treatments: (1) epithelial, (2) mesenchymal and (3) mixed epithelial and mesenchymal
  • Uterine cervical tumours:
    • HPV and pre-invasive lesions
    • Squamous carcinoma
    • Adenocarcinomas
  • Cervical cancers mainly derive from high-risk HPV infections (mostly by HPV16/18). Here we describe the pathological features of the two principal subtypes: (1) squamous cell carcinoma, (2) adenocarcinomas

Further Reading

Bennett JA, Oliva E. Pathology of the adnexal mass. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2015; 58:3–27.

Bristow RE, Tomacruz RS, Armstrong DK, et al. Survival effect of maximal cytoreductive surgery for advanced ovarian carcinoma during the platinum era: a meta-analysis. J Clin Oncol 2002; 20:1248–1259.

Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network, Kandoth C, Schultz N, Cherniack AD, et al. Integrated genomic characterization of endometrial carcinoma. Nature 2013; 497:67–73.

Gilks CB, Prat J. Ovarian carcinoma pathology and genetics: recent advances. Hum Pathol 2009; 40:1213–1223.

Kurman RJ, Shih IeM. The origin and pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer: a proposed unifying theory. Am J Surg Pathol 2010; 34:433–443.

Oliva E, Young RH. Endocrine pathology of the ovary: in tribute to Robert E Scully, MD. Endocr Pathol 2014; 25:102–119.

Pecorelli S. Revised FIGO staging for carcinoma of the vulva, cervix, and endometrium. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2009; 105:103–104.

Prat J; FIGO Committee on Gynecologic Oncology. Staging Classification for Cancer of the Ovary, Fallopian Tube, and Peritoneum: Abridged Republication of Guidelines From the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO). Obstet Gynecol 2015; 126:171–174.

Uterine Cervical Tumours

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