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Proffered Paper – CNS tumours

4648 - Prognostic role of the EANO ESMO classification of leptomeningeal metastases


27 Sep 2019


Proffered Paper – CNS tumours


Tumour Site

Central Nervous System Malignancies


Emilie Le Rhun


Annals of Oncology (2019) 30 (suppl_5): v143-v158. 10.1093/annonc/mdz243


E. Le Rhun1, P. Devos2, J. Weller3, K. Seystahl4, F. Mo5, A. Compter6, A.S. Berghoff7, J. Jongen8, F. Wolpert4, R. Rudà5, D. Brandsma9, M. Preusser10, M.J. van den Bent11, U. Herrlinger12, M. Weller13

Author affiliations

  • 1 Neuro-oncology, Neurosurgery Department, Roger Salengro Hospital, 59037 - Lille/FR
  • 2 Biostatistic Unit, Lille University Hospital, Lille/FR
  • 3 Neurology, University Hospital of Bonn, Bonn/DE
  • 4 Neurology, University Hospital and University of Zurich, Zurich/CH
  • 5 Neurology, City of Health and Science and University of Turin, Turin/IT
  • 6 Neurology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Amsterdam/NL
  • 7 Department Of Medicine 1, Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Medical University of Vienna), 1090 - Vienna/AT
  • 8 Neurology, Brain Tumor Center at Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam/NL
  • 9 Neurology, Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek hospital (NKI-AVL), 1066 CX - Amsterdam/NL
  • 10 Department Of Medicine I, Vienna General Hospital (AKH) - Medizinische Universität Wien, 1090 - Vienna/AT
  • 11 Neurology, Erasmus MC Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, 3075 EA - Rotterdam/NL
  • 12 Department Of Neurology And Center For Integrated Oncology, Universitätsklinikum Bonn, 53105 - Bonn/DE
  • 13 Neurology, Universitätsspital Zürich, 8091 - Zürich/CH


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Abstract 4648


The EANO ESMO guidelines have proposed a classification of leptomeningeal metastases (LM) based on clinical (typical/atypical), cytological (positive/negative/equivocal) and MRI (A linear, B nodular, C linear + nodular, D normal or hydrocephalus only) presentation. Type I LM is defined by the presence of tumor cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (confirmed LM) whereas type II LM is defined by typical clinical and MRI signs (probable or possible LM). Here we explored the correlation between EANO ESMO subtypes of LM and outcome to assess their clinical utility.


We collected data from 254 patients with newly diagnosed LM from different primary solid tumors. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by Log-rank test.


Median age at LM diagnosis was 56.5 years (range 20-82 years). The main primary tumors were breast cancer (n = 98, 45%), lung cancer (n = 65, 25.5%) and melanoma (n = 51, 13.5%). Typical clinical LM symptoms or signs were noted in 225 patients (88.5%); only 13 patients (5%) were clinically asymptomatic. The most common MRI subtype was A seen in 117 patients (46%). Types B (n = 33, 13%), C (n = 54, 21%) and D (n = 50, 19.5%) were less common. Tumor cells were observed in the CSF in 186 patients (73%) whereas the CSF was equivocal in 24 (9.5%) and negative in 44 (17.5%) patients. Assignment to EANO ESMO classes was as follows: type IA 86 (34%), IB 19 (7.5%), IC 39 (15.5%), ID 45 (17.5%), IIA 28 (11%), IIB 13 (5%), IIC 16 (6.5%), IID 8 (3%). LM was confirmed in 189 (74.5%), probable in 51 (20%) and possible in 14 (5.5%) patients. The median overall survival (OS) was 2.75 months (range 0.09-220 months). OS was inferior in type I compared with type II LM patients (p = 0.0024). EANO ESMO subtype IIA patients had the longest survival (p = 0.0103). Patients with MRI patterns A and D pooled had poorer survival than B and C patients pooled in the presence of tumor cells in the CSF (type I) (p = 0.0402), but longer survival in the absence of tumor cells in the CSF (type II) (p = 0.0273).


The presence of tumor cells in the CSF appears to have a greater prognostic role than the neuroimaging presentation. EANO ESMO LM subtypes are prognostic and should be considered in the design of clinical trials.

Clinical trial identification

Editorial acknowledgement

Legal entity responsible for the study

University Hospital of Zurich.


Has not received any funding.


All authors have declared no conflicts of interest.

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