The active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) is thought to be protective against breast cancer. The activity of this steroid hormone is mediated mainly through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Studies suggest that in case of vitamin D deficiency or VDR gene polymorphisms, vitamin D responses are altered and may be involved in the risk of breast cancer.
This case control study was conducted at clinical oncology and clinical pathology departments, in faculty of medicine, Menoufia University. A total of 114 participants (60 patients and 54 healthy participants) were included. Vitamin D levels and Apa1 polymorphism were assessed in both patients and healthy controls.
Mean serum vitamin D levels were significantly higher among normal controls compared to cancer patients (31.54 ± 4.57 versus 14.12 ± 1.43) respectively (P value <0.001).in relation to Apa1 gene the serum vitamin D levels were significantly associated with AA and AC genotypes (P value<0.001) and both of these genotypes were prevalent in breast cancer compared to CC genotype. The serum vitamin D levels were lower in patients with larger tumor size, lymph node involvement, advanced stage, metastatic disease, in patients with capsular and lympho-vascular invasion. Low vitamin D levels and AC genotypes were significantly related to Her 2 positive disease.
Vitamin D level was significantly lower in breast cancer patients and was related to Apa 1 AA and AC genotypes both genotypes are associated with breast cancer risk. Testing the effect of varying genotypes on the function of the VDR and vitamin D status could help to improve future testing and treatment of woman at risk for breast cancer.
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All authors have declared no conflicts of interest.