Incidence of cancers among of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) are rare and varied. Standard treatment of cancers in AYAs have not been established yet. In addition, there are many life events such as school admission, employment, marriage, and childbirth among AYAs. Therefore, fertility preservation, support of employment, and others are necessary as well as treatment. Although the research of the AYAs has been done by the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program in the United States, there has been no precise report regarding cancers in AYAs in Japan.
We collected data from cancer registration at Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital from 2007-2011. We analyzed the types of cancer, age at diagnosis (15-19 years, 20-24 years, 25-29 years), sex, method of treatment, outcome of treatment, fertility preservation, marital status, raising children, and employment. Cancers in AYAs were classified according to SEER AYA Site Recode/WHO 2008 Definition.
From 2007 to 2011, cancer registrations were 9591 cases, and AYAs were 223. Patients were excluded if: not cancer, not Japanese, and were included if they were benign tumors in central nervous system. Finally, we analyzed 200 (2.1%) cancer cases of AYAs (male 33%, female 67%). The cases of leukemias were 5.5%, lymphomas 6%, CNS and other intracranial and intraspinal neoplasms 9.5%, osseous & chondromatous neoplasms 8%, soft tissue sarcomas 7.5%, germ cell and trophoblastic neoplasms 10%, melanoma and skin carcinomas 1%, carcinomas 47.5% (cervix and uterus 18%, gonads 1.5%, thyroid 4%, other carcinoma of head and neck 4.5%, breast 2%, gastrointestinal tract 5.5%, other and ill-defined sites 12%), miscellaneous specified neoplasms, NOS 3%, unspecified malignant neoplasms 0.5%, and unclassified 1.5%. 21.5% of patients undergo fertility preservation (male 4.8%, female 29.7%).
Cancers in AYAs were varied. High incidence of cervix and uterus cancer, and low incidence of melanoma and skin carcinomas among AYAs in Japan was noted in comparing with SEER 18, 2007-2011. The method of fertility preservation is mainly fertility-sparing surgery for cervix and uterus cancer.
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All authors have declared no conflicts of interest.