1. To determine the trends in incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma over a time period in India. 2. To compare change in the trends of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma of India and developed countries.
A data base study was conducted using the tumor registry data which was taken from South Indian cancer registry (Chennai-1986-98) and from a rural (Kancheepuram - 1988-98) registry, which has data for a long period since 1982 and 1987 respectively to identify the change in trends of head and neck cancers. Chennai, a South Indian urban cancer registry caters to an area of 170 sq.km and a population of 4.2 millions. The rural registry data was available only from Barshi. It is the first rural registry in India that covers a total population of around 0.4 million in 346 villages spread over 3713 sq.km. in Solapur district of Maharashtra. The National Cancer Registry Programme of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) monitors these cancer registry data. The data from these two registries were used to analyze change in trends within the country.
Incidence rate is higher in more developed countries than less developed countries. Male preponderance is forthcoming. The South Indian cancer registry recorded a total of 6857 head and neck cancers during the time period 1986 to 1998, out of which 4777 were males (23% of all male cancers), and 2080 werefemales (9% of female cancers). In the rural registry, a total of 325 head and neck cancerswere registered during the time period 1988 to 1998, out of which 272 were males (28%of all male cancers) and 53 were females (5% of all female cancers).The overall male: female ratio of head and neck cancers in urban population is 2:1and inrural population is 5:1.
A trend is emerging showing that the type of oral cancers that patients present with are changing, with a definite increase in the number of patients presenting with tongue cancer. We are also seeing that a considerable number of these patients are presenting without the known associated risk factors. However, what might be causing these cancersis still to be proven, with HPV and dietary factors being at the forefront of alternativeaetiological factors.
Clinical trial identification
All authors have declared no conflicts of interest.