Â· To report the clinico-pathological features from histopathologically diagnosed cases of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Â· To assess the distribution pattern of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Eastern Nepal.
This was a retrospective study and involved collection of data from 1998-2012; pertaining to oral squamous cell carcinoma from the archives of Department of Pathology. The demographic data included the patient's age, gender and geographical location whereas the clinico-pathological data included site of lesion and histopathological grading of Oral squamous cell carcinoma. The data were entered in MS Excel sheet 2000 and subjected to descriptive statistical analysis using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 11.5.
A total of 2767 cases were of oral and maxillofacial regions from a total of 64,984 cases. 18.2% of the cases were of oral squamous cell carcinoma of which 67.6% were male (mean age: 56.3 years) and 32.34% females (mean age: 54.88 years), mostly belonging to Sunsari district of Eastern Nepal. The most common site involved was the tongue (27.1%) followed by buccal mucosa, alveolar ridge and lower lip. The highest incidence of Oral squamous cell carcinoma was seen in the 5th to 7th decade of life. Among the various histopathological grades, 71.2% comprised of well differentiated type, 22.8% moderate and 4.1% of poorly differentiated. With subsequent years the incidence of the cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma were found to be increasing though statistically not significant.
The high incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma is alarming. Lack of awareness and easy access to tobacco and areca nut is considered to be the prime concern. Creating awareness among the young population regarding the ill effects of tobacco and highlighting the importance of early diagnosis is necessary. Strategies to overcome the present situation should include programs on early diagnosis and oral health programs for the prevention of oral cancer in the community.
Clinical trial identification
All authors have declared no conflicts of interest.