Extramedullary plasmacytomas (EMPs) is a rare presentation of plasma cell neoplasm and accounts for 7 to 15% of all plasma cell neoplasm. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH)-detected abnormalities, including del(17p), del(13q), and t(4;14), have been associated with inferior prognosis. However, there are few data about the prognostic significance of cytogenetic abnormalities in multiple myeloma (MM) patients with extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP). This study aimed the clinical features, FISH data and outcome of patients with EMPs.
The data were collected from 70 patients with EMPs, retrospectively. We excluded skeletal plasmacytomas. The clinic-pathologic variables and treatment outcome retrospectively reviewed.
Seventeen patients had solitary EMPs. Most common site of solitary EMP was nasal cavity and most patients received radiotherapy (n = 7) and surgery (n = 6). A total of 905 patients with newly diagnosed MM were included, and 53 patients (8.7%) had EMPs at diagnosis. Thirty-three patients had conventional FISH data. By conventional cytogenetic analysis and FISH, 35.8% (19/53) and 54.5% (18/33) patients were identified genetic abnormalities, respectively. By comprehensive cytogenetic/FISH approach, the most common genetic aberration was 1q21 amplification and/or 1p32 deletion (42.4%, 14/33), followed by -13 or del (13q) (24.3%, 8/33), del (17p) (15.2%, 5/33), IGH/FGFR3 rearrangement (15%, 2/33) and IGH/CCND1 rearrangement (12%, 2/33). Patients with initial EMPs had significantly worse overall survival compared to those without initial EMPs. Del(13q), and t (4;14) have been associated with inferior prognosis.
In the current study, del(13q), and t (4;14) were associated with worse survival in MM patients with EMP.
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Hyun Ae Jung
All authors have declared no conflicts of interest.