D/C is reported in up to 30% of patients treated with ICPI. Treatment algorithms advocate corticosteroids (CS) for moderate to severe symptoms. Patterns of endoscopic change and duration of CS are not described. Rates of CS toxicity in this group of patients are unclear.
Medical records of melanoma patients treated with ICPI at the Royal Marsden Hospital from 2010-2015 were reviewed. The grade, duration of CS and infliximab (INF) use was recorded for each D/C episode. Patients who had flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) were labeled as having macroscopic + /-microscopic (macro), microscopic (micro) changes alone or no changes (normal). CS toxicities were noted.
414 ICPI treatment episodes were undertaken in 353 patients. The rate of all-grade D/C was 23% (96/414): 27% (77/282) with ipilimumab, 8% (8/101) with anti-PD-1 agents and 38% (8/21) with combination ipilimumab + nivolumab. Median age 61 years, 54% were male.
Steroid use by Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Findings
|N||Received CS (%)||No CS||Median CS duration days (range)||UNK re CS duration||On CS at 3mths (%)||UNK re CS at 3mths (%)||INF (%)||Median days CS to INF (range)|
|Macro||27||24 (89)||3||69 (5-278)||4||10 (42)||4 (15)||8 (33)||15 (6-60)|
|Micro||8||7 (88)||1||51 (12-162)||0||2 (29)||0||0||na|
|Normal FS||9||8 (89)||1||40 (7-156)||0||1 (13)||0||2 (25)||11 (2-20)|
|Unknown||6||5 (8)||1||67 (36-91)||1||1 (20)||0||1 (20)||9|
We describe different phenotypes of D/C associated with ICPI therapy. Appearances at FS may predict for duration of CS use. All patients should be monitored for stigmata of CS use and considered for PJP prophylaxis. CS sparing strategies should be prospectively evaluated.
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All authors have declared no conflicts of interest.