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Summary and Further Reading

Summary: Epidemiology, prevention, screening and surveillance of skin cancer

  • There are great differences in incidence and mortality between countries internationally and also in Europe
  • Survival for advanced melanoma patients has been significantly prolonged by new therapeutic options
  • Risk factors for development of melanoma comprise UV radiation (sun exposure, tanning beds), sunburn, multiple or dysplastic naevi and medical history of melanoma
  • Rising melanoma awareness among the population and protection from UV light has potentially led to a decrease in incidence in some countries (e.g. Australia)
  • NMSCs make up the greatest proportion of all human cancers and include BCC, cSCC and further, rarer entities
  • Major risk factors for NMSC are chronic sun-damaged skin and immunosuppression
  • MCC is a very rare NMSC with a highly aggressive growth and a high disease-specific mortality rate
  • Primary CTCLs and CBCLs are incurable primary extra-nodal lymphomas, which frequently show a rather chronic course of disease, but can also involve organs and show aggressive courses

Further Reading

Arnold M, Holterhues C, Hollestein LM, et al. Trends in incidence and predictions of cutaneous melanoma across Europe up to 2015. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2014; 28:1170–1178.

Ascierto PA, Schadendorf D. Immunotherapy in non-melanoma skin cancer: updates and new perspectives. Drugs Context 2019; 8:212583.

Bastian BC. The molecular pathology of melanoma: an integrated taxonomy of melanocytic neoplasia. Annu Rev Pathol 2014; 9:239–271.

Becker JC, Stang A, DeCaprio JA, et al. Merkel cell carcinoma. Nat Rev Dis Primers 2017; 3:17077.

Komatsubara KM, Jeter J, Carvajal RD, et al. Advances in the treatment of advanced extracutaneous melanomas and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book 2017; 37:641–650.

Korgavkar K, Weinstock MA. Changing incidence trends of cutaneous B-cell lymphoma. J Invest Dermatol 2014; 134:840–842.

Lomas A, Leonardi-Bee J, Bath-Hextall F. A systematic review of worldwide incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Br J Dermatol 2012; 166:1069–1080.

Schadendorf D, van Akkooi ACJ, Berking C, et al. Melanoma. Lancet 2018; 392:971–984.

Stang A, Garbe C, Autier P, Jöckel KH. The many unanswered questions related to the German skin cancer screening programme. Eur J Cancer 2016; 64:83–88.

Ugurel S, Röhmel J, Ascierto PA, et al. Survival of patients with advanced metastatic melanoma: the impact of MAP kinase pathway inhibition and immune checkpoint inhibition - Update 2019. Eur J Cancer 2020; 130:126–138.

Epidemiology, prevention, screening and surveillance of NMSC (continued)

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