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Essentials for Clinicians: Gastrointestinal Tract Tumours

Editors

Andrés Cervantes, MD, PhD 

Medical Oncology Department, Hospital Clínico Universitario; Incliva Biomedical Research Institute, University of Valencia, Valencia; Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERONC, Madrid, Spain 

cervantes-andres
Andrés Cervantes Read more

Andrés Cervantes is Professor of Medicine at the University of Valencia, Spain, and serves as Head of the Department of Medical Oncology at the University Hospital. He is also scientific director of the Institute of Health Research Incliva, in Spain. His main areas of research and clinical interest are gastrointestinal cancer and new drugs development.  

He is also responsible for a translational research laboratory, mainly working in liquid biopsies and in the molecular classification of gastrointestinal malignancies, as well as in the mechanisms of resistance for HER2 blockade in gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinomas. 

Professor Cervantes is the author of more than 300 research articles in peer-reviewed journals. He has been serving the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) in different working groups and committees since 2000 and is currently President-Elect (2020-2022). He is an Associate Editor for Gastrointestinal Cancer in Annals of Oncology. 

 

Marcia Hall, MBBS, PhD 

Department of Medical Oncology, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood; Department of Life Sciences, Brunel University London, London, UK 

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Marcia Hall Read more

Professor Hall qualified in 1986 from Guy’s Hospital in London, UK. She was appointed as a consultant in medical oncology at Mount Vernon Cancer Centre (MVCC) in 1999. Her main area of interest is gynaecological cancers, but she also treated patients with colorectal cancers until 2020. 

She is very research-active, being Principal Investigator of many clinical trials at MVCC and Chief Investigator for the UK in three trials currently. 

She completed her PhD at the Imperial Cancer Research Fund (now CRUK), working on cyclins and kinases. Since 2015 she has collaborated with colleagues at Brunel University, London. The main focus of her work is the identification and purpose of circulating cancer-associated cells. She was appointed Professor of Translational Oncology in 2018. 

Her professional aims are to care effectively for her patients with cancer, using evidence-based medicine where available and offering research trials of novel drugs and/or techniques. 

 

Michalis V. Karamouzis, MD, PhD 

Molecular Oncology Unit, Department of Biological Chemistry; Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece 

karamouzis-michalis
Michalis Karamouzis Read more

Michalis Karamouzis is currently Associate Professor at the Medical School of the University of Athens, Greece. He is a medical oncologist specialised in treating patients with gastrointestinal cancers. He has also set up a Molecular Oncology Unit in his institution, where his team has been working on cell tissue cultures and animal models. 

Professor Karamouzis has authored more than 120 publications in international peer-reviewed journals, achieving up to now more than 3700 citations, with an H-index of 37. He has also served as a reviewer for many peer-reviewed international journals and as evaluator for several scientific project proposals, both at national and international level. 

Professor Karamouzis has been a member of the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) since January 2004. In 2011 and 2012 he chaired the ESMO Young Oncologists Committee; currently he holds positions in various ESMO committees and groups, such as the ESMO Educational Publications Working Group. 

 

Josep Tabernero, MD, PhD 

Vall d’Hebron Institute of Oncology (VHIO), Vall d’Hebron Hospital Campus, CIBERONC, UVic-UCC, Barcelona, Spain 

Josep Tabernero
Josep Tabernero Read more

 Josep Tabernero holds MD and PhD degrees from the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain, and is currently Head of the Medical Oncology Department at the Vall d’Hebron University Hospital, Director of the Vall d’Hebron Institute of Oncology (VHIO) and Professor of Medicine at UVic-UCC (Universitat de Vic – Universitat Central de Catalunya). 

Professor Tabernero serves on the Editorial Boards of various top-tier journals including Annals of Oncology, ESMO Open, Cancer Discovery, Clinical Cancer Research, Cancer Treatment Reviews, and Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology. He has (co-) authored around 500 peer-reviewed papers with an H-Index of 95. 

He was the President (2018-2019) and is currently the Past President (2020-2022) of the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO). He is also member of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). He has been a member of the Educational and Scientific Committees of various international meetings, among which ESMO, ASCO and AACR meetings. 

Contributors  

A Agudo 

Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), Nutrition and Cancer Group, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain 

M Alsina 

Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology (VHIO), Barcelona; Vall d’Hebron University Hospital, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain 

C Antoniotti 

Department of Oncology, University Hospital of Pisa, Pisa; Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy 

S Aretz 

Institute of Human Genetics, Center for Hereditary Tumor Syndromes, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany 

D Arnold 

Asklepios Tumorzentrum Hamburg, AK Altona, Hamburg, Germany 

J Balmaña 

Medical Oncology Department, Hospital Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain 

D Bellini 

Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, I.C.O.T. Hospital, Latina, Italy 

J Bruix 

Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) Group, Liver Unit, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, IDIBAPS, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), Spain 

A Cervantes 

Medical Oncology Department, Hospital Clínico Universitario; Incliva Biomedical Research Institute, University of Valencia, Valencia; Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERONC, Madrid, Spain 

I Chau 

Gastrointestinal Unit, The Royal Marsden Hospital, London, UK 

D Ciardiello 

Medical Oncology, Department of Precision Medicine, Università degli Studi della Campania “L. Vanvitelli”, Naples, Italy 

C Cremolini 

Department of Oncology, University Hospital of Pisa, Pisa; Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy 

M Cruellas 

Medical Oncology Department, Hospital Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain 

A Falcone 

Department of Oncology, University Hospital of Pisa, Pisa; Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy 

N Fazio 

European Institute of Oncology, IEO, IRCCS, Milan, Italy 

T Fleitas 

Medical Oncology Department, Hospital Clínico Universitario; Incliva Biomedical Research Institute, University of Valencia, Valencia; Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERONC, Madrid, Spain 

V Gambardella 

Medical Oncology Department, Hospital Clínico Universitario; Incliva Biomedical Research Institute, University of Valencia, Valencia; Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERONC, Madrid, Spain 

R Glynne-Jones 

Department of Radiotherapy, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, UK 

CA González 

Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), Nutrition and Cancer Group, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain 

M Harrison 

Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, UK 

K Haustermans 

Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium 

MV Karamouzis 

Molecular Oncology Unit, Department of Biological Chemistry; Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece 

A Laghi 

Department of Surgical Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Sant’Andrea University Hospital, AOU Sant’Andrea, Rome, Italy 

A Lamarca 

Department of Medical Oncology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester; Division of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK 

S Li 

Gastrointestinal Unit, The Royal Marsden Hospital, London, UK 

S Lonardi 

Department of Oncology, Veneto Institute of Oncology – IRCCS, Padua, Italy 

F Lordick 

University Cancer Center Leipzig (UCCL), University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany 

E Martinelli 

Medical Oncology, Department of Precision Medicine, Università degli Studi della Campania “L. Vanvitelli”, Naples, Italy 

G Martini 

Department of Precision Medicine, Università della Campania “L. Vanvitelli”, Naples, Italy 

N Normanno 

Cell Biology and Biotherapy Unit, Istituto Nazionale Tumori “Fondazione G. Pascale” IRCCS, Naples, Italy 

K Öberg 

Department of Endocrine Oncology, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden 

M Reig 

Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) Group, Liver Unit, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, IDIBAPS, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), Spain 

 S Roselló 

Medical Oncology Department, Hospital Clínico Universitario; Incliva Biomedical Research Institute, University of Valencia, Valencia; Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERONC, Madrid, Spain 

T Seufferlein 

Department of Internal Medicine I, Ulm University Hospital, Ulm, Germany 

EC Smyth 

Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK 

J Tabernero 

Vall d’Hebron Institute of Oncology (VHIO), Vall d’Hebron Hospital Campus, CIBERONC, UVic-UCC, Barcelona, Spain 

J Taieb 

Université de Paris (UP), Paris Descartes University, Department of Gastroenterology and Digestive Oncology, Georges Pompidou European Hospital, Paris, France 

N Tarazona Llavero 

Medical Oncology Department, Hospital Clínico Universitario; Incliva Biomedical Research Institute, University of Valencia, Valencia; Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERONC, Madrid, Spain 

JW Valle 

Department of Medical Oncology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester; Division of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK 

A Vogel 

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endocrinology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover, Germany 

Declarations of interest 

A Agudo: No conflict of interest. 

M Alsina: Consultancy: Bristol-Myers Squibb, Lilly, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Servier; honoraria for speaking issues: Amgen, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Lilly, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Roche, Servier; travel expenses partially covered by Amgen, Lilly, Roche. 

C Antoniotti: No conflict of interest. 

S Aretz: No conflict of interest. 

D Arnold: Advisory boards (A) and/or educational activities/honoraria for presentations (H): Amgen (H), AstraZeneca (A, H), Bayer (A, H), Bristol-Myers Squibb (A, H), Boston Scientific (A, H), Eli Lilly (A), Merck Serono (A, H), Merck Sharp & Dohme (A), Roche (A, H), Sanofi (A, H), Servier (A, H), Sirtex (A, H), Terumo (A, H); CME providers: Art Tempi (H), PriME Oncology (H), TRM Oncology (H); travel support: AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Roche, Sanofi; research funding to institute: AstraZeneca, InCyte, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Roche, Sanofi; non-remunerated activities: advisory role and/or PI function: Mologen AG, Oncolytics Biotech. 

J Balmaña: Advisory role: AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Pfizer. 

D Bellini: No conflict of interest. 

J Bruix: Consultancy fees: AbbVie, Adaptimmune Therapeutics, ArQule, Astra-MedImmune, Basilea, Bayer, BioAlliance/Onxeo, Bristol-Myers Squibb, BTG-Biocompatibles, Eisai, Gilead, Incyte, Ipsen, Kowa, Lilly, Merck, Nerviano Medical Science, Novartis, Quirem, Roche, Sirtex, Terumo; research grants: Bayer, BTG; educational grants: Bayer, BTG; lecture fees: Bayer, BTG-Biocompatibles, Eisai, Ipsen, Sirtex, Terumo. 

A Cervantes: Institutional research funding: Astellas, Bayer, BeiGene, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Fibrogen, Genentech, Lilly, Merck Serono, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Novartis, Roche, Servier, Takeda; advisory board or speaker fees: Astellas, Merck Serono, Roche, Servier, Takeda. 

I Chau: Advisory board: AstraZeneca, Bayer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Five Prime Therapeutics, Merck Serono, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Pierre Fabre, Roche, Oncologie International; research funding: Eli Lilly, Janssen-Cilag, Merck Serono, Sanofi Oncology; honorarium: Eli Lilly. 

D Ciardiello: Travel grant: Sanofi. 

C Cremolini: Personal fees: Amgen, Bayer, Roche, Sirtex. 

M Cruellas: No conflict of interest. 

A Falcone: Grants and personal fees: Amgen, Merck Serono, Roche; personal fees: Bayer, Celgene, Sanofi Aventis. 

N Fazio: Personal fees for advisory boards, public speaking: Advanced Accelerator Applications, Ipsen, Merck Serono, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Novartis, Pfizer, Sanofi-Aventis, Wren Laboratories Europe; institutional financial interests: Clinical trials (P.I., Steering committee): Astellas, BeiGene, Five Prime Therapeutics, Halozyme, Incyte, Ipsen, Merck Serono, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Novartis, Pfizer, Pharmacyclics, Roche; non-financial interests: European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS): advisory board chairman; Associazione Italiana di Oncologia Medica (AIOM): referee of neuroendocrine neoplasms guidelines; ITANET: scientific committee member; European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO): Chair of NEN advanced course and NEN preceptorships. 

T Fleitas: No conflict of interest. 

V Gambardella: No conflict of interest. 

R Glynne-Jones: Chief medical advisor of the UK national colorectal cancer charity: Bowel Cancer UK. 

CA González: No conflict of interest. 

M Hall: No conflict of interest. 

M Harrison: No conflict of interest. 

K Haustermans: No conflict of interest. 

MV Karamouzis: No conflict of interest. 

A Laghi: No conflict of interest. 

A Lamarca: Travel and educational support: AAA,Bayer, Delcath Systems Inc., Ipsen, Mylan, Novartis, Pfizer, SirtEx; speaker honoraria: Incyte, Ipsen, Merck, Pfizer; advisory honoraria: Eisai, Ipsen, Nutricia, QED Therapeutics, Roche; member of the Knowledge Network and NETConnect Initiatives funded by Ipsen. 

S Li: No conflict of interest. 

S Lonardi: Honoraria for speaker and/or advisory role: Amgen, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Lilly, Merck KGaA, Roche Genentech, Servier; research funding: Amgen, Merck KGaA. 

F Lordick: Grants: Bristol-Myers Squibb and Merck Sharp & Dohme for research projects; personal fees: Amgen, Astellas, AstraZeneca, BioNtech, Bristol-Myers Squibb, DKG web GmbH, Eli Lilly, Imedex, Infomedica, Iomedico, Medscape, MedUpdate GmbH, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Onkovis, Springer Nature Group, StreamedUp!, Taiho, Zymeworks. 

E Martinelli: Advisory role: Amgen, AstraZeneca, Bayer, Merck Serono, Sanofi, Roche. 

G Martini: ESMO Translational Research Fellowship grant covered by Amgen. 

N Normanno: Advisory role: Amgen, ArcherDX, AstraZeneca, Bayer, Biocartis, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Illumina, Incyte, Merck, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Qiagen, Roche, Sanofi, Thermo Fisher Scientific. 

K Öberg: Member of European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) advisory board, member of ITM AG advisory board and member of Camurus AB advisory board. 

M Reig: Consultancy fees: AstraZeneca, Bayer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Ipsen, Lilly, Roche; lecture fees: Bayer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead, Lilly, Roche; research grants: Bayer, Ipsen. 

S Roselló: No conflict of interest. 

T Seufferlein: Honoraria: Amgen, Bayer, Baxalta, Celgene, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Sanofi, Servier, Boehringer Ingelheim; research support: Amgen, Celgene, Sanofi; travel support: Ipsen. 

EC Smyth: Honoraria for advisory role: Bristol-Myers Squibb, Celgene, Five Prime Therapeutics, Gritstone, Servier. 

J Tabernero: Consultancy fees: Array Biopharma, AstraZeneca, Bayer, BeiGene, Biocartis, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chugai, Foundation Medicine, Genentech Inc., Genmab A/S, HalioDX SAS, Halozyme, Imugene Limited, Inflection Biosciences Limited, Ipsen, Kura Oncology, Lilly, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Menarini, Merck Serono, Merrimack, Merus, Molecular Partners, Novartis, Peptomyc, Pfizer, Pharmacyclics, ProteoDesign SL, Rafael Pharmaceuticals, Roche, Roche Diagnostics, Sanofi, SeaGen, Seattle Genetics, Servier, Symphogen, Taiho, VCN Biosciences; institutional financial interest in the form of financial support for clinical trials or contracted research: Agendia BV, Amgen SA, Debiopharm International SA, Janssen-Cilag SA, Mologen AG, Novartis SA, Pharma Mar, Roche SA, Servier SL, Symphogen A/S. 

J Taieb: Honoraria for speaker and/or advisory role: Amgen, Celgene, Lilly, Merck KGaA, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Pierre Fabre, Roche Genentech, Sanofi, Servier. 

N Tarazona Llavero: No conflict of interest. 

JW Valle: Travel grants: Celgene, Ipsen, Novartis, NuCana; speakers’ bureau: Abbott, Celgene, Ipsen, Novartis, Pfizer, Sirtex; consulting role: Abbott, Agios, AstraZeneca, Baxalta, Bioven, Celgene, Delcath Systems Inc., Genoscience Pharma, Incyte, Ipsen, Keocyt, Lilly, Merck, MidaTech, Mundipharma, Novartis, NuCana, PCI Biotech, Pfizer, Pieris Pharmaceuticals, QED Pharmaceuticals. 

A Vogel: Consultancy fees: AstraZeneca, Bayer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, BTG, Eisai, Eli Lilly, Incyte Corporation, Ipsen, Janssen, Merck, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Novartis, Pierre Fabre, Roche, Sanofi, Servier.

Chapter 1 - Epidemiology, risk factors and pathogenesis

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