Summary and Further Reading

Chapter 1 - Anatomy of the GU Tract and Histology of GU Tumours


  • The most common kidney cancers are clear cell, papillary, and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma
  • Urothelium is present in the renal pelvis, ureters, urinary bladder, and the urethra, but >90% of urothelial neoplasms occur in the urinary bladder
  • The staging system of urothelial neoplasms is unusual as two non-invasive lesions exist: pTa and pTis
  • There is a high interobserver variability in staging pTa and pT1 tumours
  • pTa and pT1 tumours represent two different entities at the genetic level and have a completely different clinical course
  • Prostate cancer is very common, >75% of men at the age of 75 years will reveal prostate cancer
  • Prostate cancer is graded according to Gleason grading, the strongest predictor of tumour aggressiveness
  • More than 95% of all testicular neoplasias are germ cell tumours
  • Germ cell tumours mostly occur at young age
  • Germ cell tumours include seminoma, embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumour, choriocarcinoma, and teratoma

Further Reading

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Last update: 08 September 2015