1619 - Cilastatin attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity without compromising antitumoral activity

Date 28 September 2012
Event ESMO Congress 2012
Session Publication Only
Topics Complications of Treatment
Supportive Care
Presenter Blanca Humanes
Authors B. Humanes1, M. Blanco Codesido2, A. Lázaro1, S. Camaño1, A. Tejedor1
  • 1Nephrology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, 28007 - Madrid/ES
  • 2Servicio De Oncología Médica, Hospital General Univ. Gregorio Marañon, 28007 - Madrid/ES

Abstract

Introduction

Cisplatin (CDDP) is a very effective and common treatment in solid malignancies used mostly in breast, ovarian, bladder, esophageal, gastric, head and neck cancer and germ cell tumors. One of the most important side effects of CDDP is the nephrotoxicity, especially with CDDP doses higher than 60 mg/m2, affecting as much as 30% of the patients. Nephrotoxicity is a limitating side effect on treatment with CDDP, preventing patients with limit kidney function of receiving the drug and stopping treatment once kidney function has worsened. Cilastatin (Cls) is a specific inhibitor of renal dedydrodipeptidase I (DHP-I) which prevents hydrolysis of imipenem and its accumulation in the proximal tubule. In this work we hypothesized that Cls acts as a nephroprotector against CDDP-induced damage without compromising antitumor activity.

Methods

Primary cultures of proximal tubular cells (PTCs) and cell lines of different malignancies (colon, breast, ovarian, bladder) were cultured with different concentrations of CDDP (1, 10 and 30 µM) in the presence or absence of Cls. Cell viability was assessed with MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Raft staining was measured with toxine B choleric and FasL by confocal microscopy.

Results

Cls interfered with CDDP-induced FasL signalling at raft level on PTCs brush border. Concomitant treatment with Cls reduced CDDP-induced changes. Several tumoral cell lines were tested with CDDP and Cls together. Cls did not increase or decreased tumor growth alone or in combination with CDDP. CDDP sensitivity was not affected by Cls.

Conclusion

By binding a DHP-I, Cls blocks CDDP-induced PTCs apoptosis but it does not affect the CDDP antitumoral activity. Our findings suggest that the affinity of Cls for renal DHP-I makes this effect specific for proximal tubular cells and may be related to a reduction in intracellular drug accumulation. Cls administration might represent a novel strategy in the prevention of CDDP-induced acute renal injury. Cls treatment could potentially increase the number of patients undergoing CDDP treatment or maintaining treatment. Further clinical trials for renal function preservation in cancer patients are on development.

Disclosure

All authors have declared no conflicts of interest.