Summary and Further Reading

Chapter 2 - Clinical Presentation, Differential Diagnosis and Response Assessment of Gliomas


  • Patients may present with generalised symptoms or signs that reflect the location of the tumour
  • Common symptoms are headache, nausea and various signs of cognitive impairment
  • Tumours in the anterior frontal or temporal lobe may cause subtle or severe changes in personality and memory
  • Partial or generalised seizures may indicate a glioma
  • Weakness and sensory hemineglect are common deficits
  • Different brain disorders have to be considered in the differential diagnosis of glioma
  • Cerebral metastasis may look like malignant gliomas; furthermore, abscess and stroke mimic malignant glioma
  • The most accepted endpoints for clinical trials in neuro-oncology are overall and progression-free survival and quality of life
  • MRI is the gold standard for evaluation of tumour burden
  • Increased knowledge in tumour biology gives new predictive and prognostic markers

Further Reading

Asklund T, Malmström A, Bergqvist M, et al. Brain tumors in Sweden: data from a population-based registry 1999-2012. Acta Oncol 2015; 54:377–384.

Boele FW, Rooney AG, Grant R, Klein M. Psychiatric symptoms in glioma patients: from diagnosis to management. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2015; 11:1413–1420.

Fink JR, Muzi M, Peck M, Krohn KA. Multimodality brain tumor imaging: MR imaging, PET, and PET/MR imaging. J Nucl Med 2015; 56:1554–1561.

Mabray MC, Barajas RF Jr, Cha S. Modern brain tumor imaging. Brain Tumor Res Treat 2015; 3:8–23.

Ohgaki H, Kleihues P. The definition of primary and secondary glioblastoma. Clin Cancer Res 2013; 19:764–772.

Omuro A, DeAngelis LM. Glioblastoma and other malignant gliomas: a clinical review. JAMA 2013; 310:1842–1850.

Poldrack RA, Farah MJ. Progress and challenges in probing the human brain. Nature 2015; 526:371–379.

Quant EC, Wen PY. Response assessment in neuro-oncology. Curr Oncol Rep 2011; 13:50–56.

Siegal T. Clinical relevance of prognostic and predictive molecular markers in gliomas. Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 2016; 43:91–108.

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Last update: 18 September 2017